Maharana Pratap Smrutidin, Death Anniversary of Maharana Pratap, is observed on Magh Shukla Ekadashi, 11th day of waxing phase of moon in Magh Maas in Hindi Calendar. In 2023, Maharana Pratap Smrutidin date is February 1.
Pratap Singh I, popularly known as Maharana Pratap, was a Hindu Rajput king of Mewar. He was titled as ‘Mewari Rana’ and was notable for his military resistance against the expansionism of the Mughal Empire and is known for his participation in the Battle of Haldighati 1576 CE and the Battle of Dewair 1582 CE.
Maharana Pratap was born in Hindu Rajput family to Udai Singh II of Mewar and Jaiwanta Bai. His younger brothers were Shakti Singh, Vikram Singh and Jagmal Singh. Pratap also had 2 stepsisters: Chand Kanwar and Man Kanwar. He was married to Ajabde Punwar of Bijolia and he had married 10 other women and was survived by 17 sons and 5 daughters including Amar Singh I.
Battle of Haldighati
The Battle of Haldighati was fought on 18 June 1576 between Pratap Singh and Mughal forces led by Man Singh I of Amer. The Mughals were victorious and inflicted significant casualties among the Mewaris but failed to capture the Pratap.
The site of the battle was a narrow mountain pass at Haldighati near Gogunda, modern day Rajsamand in Rajasthan. Pratap Singh fielded a force of around 3000 cavalry and 400 Bhil archers. The Mughals were led by Man Singh of Amber, who commanded an army numbering around 10,000 men. After a fierce battle lasting more than three hours, Pratap found himself wounded and the day lost. He managed to retreat to the hills and lived to fight another day.
Haldighati was a futile victory for the Mughals, as they were unable to kill or capture Pratap, or any of his close family members in Udaipur. While the sources also claim that Pratap was able to make a successful escape, Mansingh managed to conquer Gogunda within a week after Haldighati then ended his campaign. Subsequently, Akbar himself led a sustained campaign against the Rana in September 1576, and soon, Gogunda, Udaipur, and Kumbhalgarh were all under Mughal control.
Revival of Mewar
Maharana Pratap took refuge in the Chappan area and started attacking the Mughal strongholds. By 1583 he had successfully captured western Mewar, which included Dewar, Amet, Madariya, Zawar and the fort of Kumbalgarh. He then made Chavand his capital and constructed a Chamunda mata temple there. The Maharana was able to live in peace for a short time and started establishing order in Mewar. From 1585 till his death, the Rana had recovered a large part of Mewar.
The citizens who had migrated out of Mewar started returning during this time. There was good monsoon which helped to revive the agriculture of Mewar. The economy also started getting better and trade in the area started increasing. The Rana was able to capture the territories west of Chittor but could not fulfill his dream of capturing Chittor itself.
Reportedly, Pratap died of injuries sustained in a hunting accident, at Chavand on 19 January 1597, aged 56. He was succeeded by his eldest son, Amar Singh I. On his death bed, Pratap told his son never to submit to the Mughals and to win Chittor back.