The Manusmriti is an ancient Sanskrit text that contains the details about the principles of Dharma like providing food to the living beings in the earth like birds, animals and humans, helping others and behaving with others in a kind manner, worshipping of gods, performing meditation and visiting to the temples etc.
It also contains the details about the proper governance of the kings, law and order situation, taxes to be levied, proper treatment of the people, punishment to be given for the wrong doers, cultivation of crops, worship of the deities, construction of temples for the deities, honouring of the learned men and awarding them suitably etc.
Manusmriti was written by Sri Manu, the mind born son of Lord Brahma, before several lakhs of years. The great Manu once discussed with the pious Bhrigu Maharishi, about the administration affairs of the kings, and the types of the duties to be discharged by them. In course of time, this famous discussion was passed to several noble sages, and finally Sage Veda Vyasa had written the discussion of Manu and named it as Manusmriti.
The teachings of the great Manu are considered as divine teachings by the ancient kings, and they followed it properly.
SOME OF THE TEACHINGS OF MANU ARE AS FOLLOWS:
1. A king must be well versed in all kinds of arts, and he must be a god fearing person.
2. A king must be an able administrator and must be capable of handling all types of weapons.
3. A king has to take care of his kingdom’s people as his own children, and must provide all sorts of necessities to them.
4. A king must not enjoy too much of physical pleasures, and he must rule over his kingdom in a proper manner, and he must show sincere devotion on the almighty.
5. A king should not charge too much of taxes from his people. He has to charge a lower amount of tax, and must not over burden the people.
6. Strict punishment to be given by the kings for those who engage themselves in doing evil activities like theft, murder, rape and causing harm to the public properties etc.
7. If a king doesn’t rule his kingdom properly, he would be cursed by his own people, and after his death, he has to suffer in the hell for a long period of time.
8. A king must construct food shelters all over his kingdom, and must also construct resting places for the travellers.
9. A king must highly respect the priests, saints, sages and must provide proper facility to them.
10. After attaining old age, a king must have to crown his son as the king, and must move to the forest along with his consort, and must perform penance, in order to attain salvation.